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JavaScript Guide

This article will be a comprehensive guide to help explain JavaScript in detail.
Apr 21, 2022 • 14 minute read
Updated on Mar 6, 2023 by Simon S.
Cover Photo
JavaScript is a programming language that is primarily used to create interactive and dynamic web pages, allowing for the creation of things like image sliders, form validation, and interactive maps.
What are the main features of JavaScript?
JavaScript is a high-level, interpreted programming language that supports object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles.
What are the uses of JavaScript?
JavaScript is widely used to create interactive and dynamic web pages, as well as server-side and desktop applications.
Where does JavaScript originate from?
JavaScript was developed by Brendan Eich in 1995, while working at Netscape Communications. It was later standardized under the name ECMAScript by the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA).
JavaScript (JS for short) is one of the world’s most popular programming languages used to develop a range of real world interactive web applications that are used by people everyday. In fact, according to a survey by W3Techs, over 97% of websites use JavaScript for its client-side programming language.
JavaScript is one of three major technologies involved in the construction of web content, the other two being HTML (hypertext markup language) and CSS (cascading style sheets). Working in perfect harmony together, these three programming languages produce the most modern, responsive and interactive websites that are most widely used today.
If you view a webpage that contains more than just plain content, you can be almost certain that JavaScript is working in the background. It can be utilised to power web features such as interactive images, forms and graphics and so much more. Therefore, it may come as no shock that it’s considered a must have inclusion for any web development project you wish to take on.
This article will be a comprehensive guide to help explain in detail everything about:
What is JavaScript and why is it used?
What is JavaScript vs Java?
Is JavaScript better than HTML?
Why you need to hire a JavaScript developer?
What to look for in a JavaScript developer?
How much does it cost to hire a JavaScript developer?
How do I hire an expert JavaScript developer on

What is JavaScript and why is it used?

If you are a complete newbie to JavaScript, you may be wondering to yourself what this programming language can do for you and your business. So before you begin trying to incorporate the JavaScript code in your website, it is important to understand its actual capabilities. This will ultimately determine whether learning its code is a smart option or not depending on your specific direction that you wish to pursue for your business.
Simply put, JavaScript is a lightweight, high-level and interpreted programming language with top-class functionality that first appeared around 1995. It was standardised and maintained by the ECMA (European Computer Manufacturers Association) specification, aptly named the ECMAScript. It is considered as a multi-paradigm, just-in-time compiled language that uses curly-bracket syntax, dynamic typing with prototype-based object-orientation. I can also be incorporated with back-end frameworks like Node.js to write code behind a web page, such as form processing and payments.
It's no wonder that some of the world's largest online platforms use JavaScript in their web technology infrastructure like:

JavaScript is just so versatile where the most common real-word applications that JavaScript is used for are:

Front End Web Development

This is when front end web developers create the user interface (UI) by building the front-end portion of websites and web applications. This controls how each portion of a website or application looks and also what it does. This is the section that users actually see on their screen and can interact with. The primary role of a front end web developer is to create websites and other web applications using standard web languages including JavaScript, HTML and CSS.
For instance, if you wanted to build your own website, you more likely will need to hire a front-end developer to create the overall layout you desire. They can assist in deciding the general appearance and key features like navigating around the site, where to put images and how the site is presented. This all helps to ensure that the site or application is simple to navigate and highly intuitive for their user.

Back End Web Development

In simple terms, back end development refers to the process of building software that runs on the web server, as opposed to front end development which incorporates locally run software. Back end developers are in charge of the data that you can't see on the screen, in contrast to the front end developers who create the user interface. As such, both front end and back end development are needed to create a dynamic web app.
In summary, the back end is all about the software that runs on the web server, and is the foundation of what makes the front end operational. While some sites, typically called static sites, only really have a front end, any site with dynamic content wouldn’t work without a back end supporting it.

Mobile Application Development

Normally, mobile apps have been developed using programming languages that were specific to a particular operating system. For example, Java was used for Android mobile development while Swift was used for Apple’s iOS mobile development. Fast forward a few years where now several tech frameworks have recently evolved to allow you to create mobile apps using the JavaScript programming language.
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Game Development

JavaScript is an ideal programming language for creating both web-based and mobile games. This is mainly because it is usually easier to understand and has a plethora of online resources readily available to assist coders. As such, you will find a magnitude of online games powered by JavaScript on the web.

What is JavaScript vs Java?

Both JavaScript and Java set the standard in the overall programming ecosystem. If you are interested in programming, you’re almost certain to come across these terms sooner or later. Even though they both sound related to each other, they are very different in their functionality.
As explained in Java’s official website, the JavaScript programming language, developed by Netscape, Inc., is not part of the Java platform. JavaScript does not create applets or stand-alone applications. In its most common form, JavaScript resides inside HTML documents, and can provide levels of interactivity to web pages that are not achievable with simple HTML.
The main differences between Java and JavaScript are:
Java is an OOP (object-oriented programming) language, and JavaScript is specifically an OOP scripting language.
JavaScript code is run on a browser only, while Java creates applications that run in a virtual machine or browser.
Java code needs to be compiled while JavaScript code is all shown in text.
Both Java and JavaScript require different plug-in software components.
Even though Java and JavaScript frameworks have very different attributes, there are actually some major similarities to consider in terms of web development such as:
Both languages utilise object-oriented programming and rely on the developer to code objects and their relationships to each other.
Both languages can be incorporated into front-end development, whereby JavaScript can be embedded directly into HTML. This is achieved by implementing it as a framework or library, whereas Java can be used as a Java applet.
Both languages can be implemented on the server-side where Java is used regularly to power back-end platforms like Apache, JBoss, and WebSphere. For JavaScript-powered servers, Node.js is the preferred back-end framework.
So, to sum up, if you are asking the question “Should I use JavaScript or Java for my next project?”, the choice really comes down to what you are prepared to take on and how you want to go about creating your resources. Even though Java is a general-purpose programming language, JavaScript is very much a web technology on its own.
All in all, it’s a very smart option to use the services of a full stack web developer who deals with only one programming language like JavaScript. It will be worth your while.
JavaScript book

Is JavaScript better than HTML?

As with all programming languages, the choice really comes down to what you wish to create and also how simple or complex you’re prepared to make this process.
JavaScript is primarily used to make web app pages more interactive by adding dynamic functionality to static web pages. It can be used as an alternative to Flash, although most web developers and programmers will more likely prefer JavaScript since it has a lot more functionality than Flash. JavaScript can be used to code repetitive functions like creating animations and graphics.
By comparison, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is mainly used for creating static content to web applications or web pages. HTML is more versatile than JavaScript as it can use any web browser to display the static content as opposed to JavaScript which requires a JS engine to run the code.
To sum it up a bit more, HTML simply provides what the web page should display rather than how, whereas JavaScript provides the functionality of how to display the data based on the user’s requirement.
In terms of integration, JavaScript can be embedded inside HTML but on the flipside, HTML cannot be embedded inside JavaScript.
Another intelligent reason to choose JavaScript is that HTML has no supporting libraries, as compared to JavaScript where you have access to powerful libraries such as AngularJS, ReactJS, ExtJS, Vue JS and more, providing ultra-fast and rich web applications.
As you can clearly see, there are pro’s and con’s to both coding languages so it is entirely up to the requirements of your intended users to help you make an informed decision.The choice is entirely up to you.

Why you need to hire a JavaScript developer

There are so many clever reasons to hire a JavaScript developer for your next project. First and foremost, it’s safe to say that JavaScript dominates the realm of front end development. It is used by most professional web developers who can get the most out of the JavaScript programming language to create a truly immersive and fully-functioning website or web applications.
By employing the services of an experienced JavaScript developer, you can be rest assured that they will be able to prototype innovative ideas, designs and concepts to enhance your web presence. Most JavaScript developers are skilled in working with lean or agile methodologies and adhering to best practices in web development. As an added bonus, they can also research and design new web and mobile app technologies to greatly improve consistency and usability in your overall user interface (UI).
One of the great features of JavaScript is its ability to run on the user’s system and not the back end server, resulting in using up a much smaller amount of your valuable resources. It’s virtually indispensable compared to other web development frameworks where none can really beat JavaScript in performance and browser compatibility.
As web technology continues to evolve at a rapid pace, you may have an older style website that could benefit from a little bit of updating. Take for instance, the fact that JavaScript code looked completely different than it was even a few years ago. So with this type of web technology shifting so quickly, it’s so vital to stay ahead of the game. This is when it’s worth hiring an expert Web developer who can generate code like JavaScript to bring cutting edge elements of versatility to your website or mobile apps.
By hiring an expert JavaScript developer for your project, you can be almost certain that they will contribute their amazing design skills using the latest technologies to create transformative solutions for your business. An experienced developer will be able to create high quality, sharp, clean and responsive design layouts to ensure strong performance. They will be able to manage all front end system features, from creating intricate web applications to analysing code, resulting in an optimal user experience for your clients.

What to look for in a JavaScript developer

With the sheer scope of talent and specialisation within the programming domain, it has made things that much more difficult to pick the right person for your project. With that said, understanding what skills and qualifications are needed for your project can greatly help you to select the best-fit candidates.
Depending on the type of project you wish to implement, you’ll likely need to choose between the following types of JavaScript developers to make your selection process easier:

Front-end Developer

A front-end developer ensures that your website functions and looks the way you desire. To achieve this, they normally use technologies such as CSS, HTML, and JavaScript to create the user-facing sections of sites and web apps. If you only want to build a static-content website with basic functionality, you can choose a front-end developer with less experience, without having to worry about servers, databases, and APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). However, if you wish to create a more interactive user interface, you will need a developer with more experience.

Back-end Developer

A back-end developer deals with the stuff in the background that you can't see to maintain the smooth running of applications. They use clean and well-documented code to create all types of web applications. They are not responsible for the presentation side of things, but more so on the operations of the server including databases and APIs. Ultimately, a back end developer's job is to build and maintain the back end technology that powers these components to enable the front user-facing side of the website to actually exist.

Full Stack Developer

A full stack developer is like a jack-of-all-trades since they are able to handle both front-end and back-end web development frameworks. Like back-end developers, they too deal with the server side of web programming, but they can also handle the front-end side of things to manage how the user-facing side looks.
As we discussed earlier, one of the key advantages of JavaScript is that it allows developers to write both front and back-end code, which simply means that you’ll only need to hire one developer to work on your designated project.
Other important aspects to consider when deciding on your ideal JavaScript developer would be:

Are you starting from scratch or already started?

If you have already begun your project, it will be a lot simpler for you to know the type of person that you need. You more than likely have decided on the technologies and system architecture to use, so you can then narrow your search to focus on a developer with experience in these skill sets.
On the other hand, if you are starting from square-one, you will need to first determine what methods you will use to develop your project. Depending on your knowledge with JavaScript, you may need to do some research to better identify which software platforms and frameworks you want to include in your project. The main goal in doing this is to ascertain the key issues you wish to solve and selecting the right frameworks that can best help in building your website.

What is the timeframe for your project?

Another crucial aspect to consider is how long your project will take to complete based on the tasks you need to undertake. Depending on the answer to this question, you will no doubt have specific requirements of a developer, so you will need to limit your search based on these factors. To establish this, write a project description to determine the scope of work and also the skills and abilities you are looking for in a JavaScript developer.

In-house vs freelance JavaScript developer?

From an investment perspective, hiring an in-house developer will be more costly than a freelance developer would be. You may believe that an in-house JavaScript developer will be more reliable or dedicated to your project than a freelance developer, although this couldn’t be further from the truth. In essence, there is really no need to hire an in-house developer, especially if your project is only short-term or you just have some minor issues to resolve.
Hiring a freelancer is both more cheaper and easier to organise where you are sure to find the right person on

How much does it cost to hire a JavaScript developer?

It’s a well-known fact that JavaScript developers are currently in very high demand. When you hire an expert JavaScript developer, their hourly rates depend on a number of factors such as:
Complexity of project
Skill level and experience
Geographical location
Quality of work
Level of English
Knowledge of programming languages
In this regard, the cost to hire a JavaScript developer varies between $40 to $80 per hour on average, taking into account all of the above factors. The rule of thumb is that the more skilled the developer is, the more expensive their time will be.
However, if you need to hire web developers for JavaScript, it is not enough to look at average rates worldwide. Because a web developer in the United States will more likely charge more than someone in Europe or Asia. Added to this, it also depends on which region developers reside in as their hourly rates usually differ between Eastern and Western Europe. Developers from Eastern European countries normally charge below the average rates compared to Western European countries and range from $25 to $50 an hour.
Not to mention that developers from Asia generally charge the lowest rate for the work they do. For example, a JavaScript developer from India, Pakistan or Bangladesh may charge around $15 to $40 per hour for the same type of work as coders in other regions. Even though this may sound quite attractive from a cost perspective, you need to make sure you don’t compromise on quality and work ethic in the long run just to save a few bucks.
This is why we strongly encourage you to carefully consider your unique needs vs your financial position before selecting a dedicated developer for your project. This will definitely lessen the risk of you ending up with a non-functional web application and having to start all over again.

How do I hire an expert JavaScript developer on

You’ve made a very wise decision to hire a JavaScript developer on for your web development project as the process couldn’t be any easier. On, you have access to an endless supply of talented JavaScript developers for hire that fit the bill to meet your every possible expectation.
Here are two simple ways to lead you on the right path in hiring the right candidate:
● Post your project
On the platform, you can post your public project free of charge. All you need to do is outline a brief description of your JavaScript requirements and attach any documents that may be helpful. Before you know it, you will be receiving a number of responses from prospective candidates, presenting their competitive bids to take on your project. Once you’ve obtained a few offers, it’s then time to review each freelancer’s profile to determine if they are suitable for your needs.
● Hire a freelancer directly
The beauty of hiring a freelancer directly is that you have the ability to search through the Freelancer Directory for candidates with the specific skill sets and experience you're after. After you’ve selected a few people, you can then view their public profiles and when you are satisfied, offer to hire them directly. It's really as easy as it sounds and one of the fastest ways to find the ideal JavaScript developer for your project.
In addition, you will need to set your project budget and timeframe to complete the work. Keep in mind that these both need to be reasonable and appropriate to the variety of tasks that are required for your project. If they are not realistic, you then risk not attracting the most qualified candidates which equates to time wasted.
Regardless of the option you choose in hiring a freelancer, you should have some clear questions in mind to ask about the services they can provide. This will ensure that you only get contacted by freelancers that are capable of delivering your project successfully.
When you’ve finished posting your project and obtained some bids from candidates, now comes the fun part- Assessing each bid.
Some important details to consider when make your decision on a freelancer include:
Bid amount: Freelancer’s with more experience will usually price themselves higher.
Bid proposal: What the freelancer can offer you and does it match your needs.
Star rating from 1 to 5: Gives you a good idea of their quality of work completed.
Reviews/Feedback: Provides comments on their work approach and competence level from clients who have hired them before.
Portfolio of work: View samples of their previous work.
On time and On-budget rates: Shows the percentage of projects that were completed on or before deadlines and also if they were done within budget.
Jobs completed rate: Shows the percentage of projects that were completed successfully.
There are also other important points to consider before selecting the best rated freelancers such as:
Preferred Freelancer Badge: (Orange shield with white star) This indicates that they have been accepted into Preferred Freelancer Program as the site’s top tier JavaScript developers based on their high rating and excellent reviews.
The Verified Badge: (Blue badge with a tick) Provides proof that their identity has been fully verified by to increase confidence in their services.
Furthermore, you can also take advantage of our Recruiter Service to assist you in finding the right freelancer for your project. By hiring one of’s talent recruiters, they will be able to connect you to the best freelance JavaScript developers on the site.
So get started today to find your perfect JavaScript developer and start reaping the benefits for your business today. Take the first step and begin your search here. It will be one of the best decisions you’ll ever make.
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